@TKIowa Your TKO for Computer Problems and Web Design Needs

I just met with the team at TKIowa and am thoroughly impressed with the array of right sized technical staffing and solutions they offer. I’ve been in the Iowa City area offering technical services for over 30 years, and in all that time haven’t seen such a comprehensive and organized shop. Although TKIowa is a relative newcomer it’s to their advantage because they have avoided the extra baggage of legacy technologies and overhead.

As a web designer, I’m always interested to see what the competition is doing. I know of a few really nice web design teams in the Iowa City area and surrounding communities. Today I added TKIowa to that list. The principal of the business, Mo, showed me a few of their recently completed sites and the work is really exceptional.

It’s not enough to simply have a responsive or mobilized site these days. You want design and interactivity that are attractive, engaging, and result in desired outcomes — be that donations, sales, new members, subscribers, followers, or whatever your goal is. The team at TKIowa builds simple, elegant, effective sites that produce results. I’d highly recommend considering them for a site renovation.

What really impressed me from my visit was possibly the most important aspect of it all, and that is the natural talent Mo has to create a vibrant productive workplace with the essential tools needed for his team. He’s clearly someone who has a natural entrepreneurial gift and talent for managing a successful business. Some business leaders have an open door policy. Mo simply tears down all the doors, and creates an open transparent team-focused workplace. [Learn More…]



Job Opening @UIOWA: IT Support Consultant

[Tech Jobs]


The University of Iowa has a job opening for an IT Support Consultant within the College of Liberal Arts & Sciences Technology Services group, which is affiliated with the larger Information Technology Services organization on campus.

Click here now for details on the job opening.

About Work at the University of Iowa

The University of Iowa is considered by many to be one of the best employers in the nation with regard to exceptional benefits, competitive pay, world-class healthcare, career advancement opportunities, a nationally recognized fitness facility, and an exceptional working environment.

About Living in Iowa City

Many people who have traveled the world, come to Iowa City and make it their home. The community has a lot to offer which is why Iowa City is repeatedly recognized as one of the best cities in the nation to live.

Click here to read more about why Iowa City is exceptional.


Below are some videos about the University of Iowa and the Iowa City community.

About the University of Iowa

A short introductory video.

World’s First LEED Platinum Certified Data Center at the University of Iowa

A video produced by HP about our world-class LEED Platinum data center.

Our Moment: The University of Iowa

A 20-minute video from 2010 covering various aspects of campus life and work.

The University of Iowa Campus from a Student Perspective

Videos showing more about the campus from a student perspective.

CNET Download Site Uses Misleading Software Installation Utility

The Download.com website managed by CNET has become the primary website for software downloads. Many companies use it as the only portal for delivery of their software. However, the site has been identified to use misleading and potentially harmful advertising. So, it’s important to be careful when using the site.

One of the problems to be mindful of is the software download and installation utility. When using it, if you’re not careful, you’ll agree to having other software installed on your computer and having settings on your computer changed.

If you’re not careful to decline various offers, here are some common changes that you’ll experience on the Apple Mac platform:

  1. Your default search provider would be changed to Yahoo on Safari, Firefox, and Google Chrome.
  2. MacKeeper may get installed.

Be sure to read the small print. You’ll need to click on the Decline and Close buttons whenever asked if you want to install the additional software.

Here are the screenshots you’ll see during installation.


Click Next Step to continue to the screen shown below.


On this screen, you need to Decline or Accept having Yahoo set as your default search engine. The screen is configured to look like a typical License Agreement or Acceptance of Terms. Most people will just click Accept and not read the fine print. You should click Decline to avoid having modifications made to your search settings. When you click Decline, you’ll continue to the screen shown below.


The screen shown above, is written to look like a typical installation screen. However, it’s a confirmation screen to have MacKeeper installed. The Install button will install MacKeeper. The Close button will continue with the installation of the program you intended to install.

The following screens for steps 3 and 4 are relevant for the software installation.

How iPhone and Android Smartphone Apps Track and Access Your Private Information

The following series of four videos from AJ+ presents an introduction to the privacy issues related to using smartphone apps.

How Apps Access Your Private Information

[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YNNulgHYAbo?rel=0]

Google Is Tracking Your Every Move

[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2HqOdp0u7eE?rel=0]

Free Wi-Fi Terms of Use Are Broad and Invasive

[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7hHJevLh59Q?rel=0]

Who’s Really In Control Of Your Phone?

[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vqfgcw-v_fA?rel=0]

Smartphone Hotspot: Getting Internet Access When Mediacom is Not Working


When it’s working, Mediacom offers some of the fastest Internet service in the Iowa City area. Unfortunately, the service is occasionally down or too slow to be of use. So, for people who can’t be without Internet, temporary alternative options may need to be considered. Test your speed as described below, and if you’re experiencing slow speeds or outages, consider using your smartphone as a Wi-Fi Internet hotspot (described below).

Test Your Internet Speed

It’s important to periodically test your Internet speed. It’s not uncommon for people to be getting much slower speeds than what they are paying for. This may be a temporary problem that can be fixed by a modem reset (described below), or it might be that your service provider is over charging and under delivering. To test your speed, go to the SpeedTest.net website and click the Begin Test button. There may be ads on the page with similarly designed buttons labeled “Start Now.” Ignore those. The speed test will tell you what your download and upload speeds are.

For comparison, here’s a general guide to download speeds, with Mediacom pricing as of early 2015:

  • 3 Mbps is a slower connection that isn’t as common any more. Given today’s media-dense content, It’s generally not adequate for two or more computers. Some people choose this option if available because the cost is about $25 a month.
  • 5 Mbps is a bit better.
  • 10 Mbps is a service offered by CenturyLink. The cost is $35 per month.
  • 15 Mbps is more common for homes and businesses where several computers and devices might be sharing the same connection. This is typically the speed that most people are paying for. The cost might be $30 to $35 a month.
  • 20 Mbps is more desirable and will result in faster Internet related operations. The cost might be $40 to 50 per month.
  • 50 Mbps is best for multiple computers, especially when those computers are downloading media. This is also useful for surveillance systems needing to upload video to the cloud. The cost might be $45 per month.
  • 100 Mbps is helpful for anyone requiring high-speed for multiple devices. It speeds up software downloads for technicians who are setting up multiple computers. The cost might be $55 per month.
  • 150 Mbps is the high end of what’s available for most users. The cost might be $80 per month.

The pricing listed above is introductory pricing from Mediacom, so long-term costs per month may be higher.


If you’re experiencing no Internet, or very slow Internet, before going any further, make sure that you’ve performed the basic troubleshooting step of disconnecting your cable modem. This involves removing all of the cords (power, Ethernet, and coaxial cable) for about 5 to 10 minutes. This extended period of time is to ensure that when the equipment is detected again by Mediacom’s servers, it will get a fresh connection to the Internet. This works especially well with slow Internet speeds. Let’s say you’re paying for 50 Mbps, but getting 3 Mbps. This procedure might get you back up to 50 Mbps again. When you connect the cable modem again, test your Internet speed.

Using Your Smartphone as a Wi-Fi Hotspot

Most smartphones have the ability to provide Wi-Fi Internet access. You can ask your mobile phone provider for more details about the cost. Typically the Hotspot feature is enabled and configured in your smartphone settings. For iPhone, it’s called Personal Hotspot and found at the top under settings. When connecting to your smartphone Wi-Fi, you’ll want to make sure you’ve disconnected from your cable modem (Ethernet and/or Wi-Fi connection).

This part is a little confusing, but basically the problem is that your home Wi-Fi router is probably set as the default preferred Internet connection. So, unless you turn it off, your computer will try to connect to that instead of your smartphone. If there’s an Ethernet cord going to your home router, then disconnect that. Only then will your computer prefer the smartphone Wi-Fi hotspot. Otherwise, even if your computer is connected to the smartphone it may continue trying to use the home router, and although it’s connected to the home router, it won’t get an Internet connection.

Keep in mind that your usage will be considered as part of your overall data package (see tips below on reducing data usage). However, as a short-term solution, using your smartphone as an Internet Wi-Fi hotspot should work adequately as an alternate way to access the Internet. When you do this, you’ll turn on the hotspot feature, and note down the name and password for your hotspot. You’ll need Wi-Fi capability on your computer. Laptop computers typically have this built-in. Desktop computers may need a USB Wi-Fi adapter.

Hotspot Pricing

Every mobile service provider is different, but let’s take AT&T as an example. If you pay $100 for the 10GB per month shared data. You’ll get 15GB (due to a special promotion) that you can share among your devices. Devices may be $10 to $40 per month per line (or per device). Verizon has a limit of 2.5 GB of data shared per device even if you’re on their 10 GB plan (as of early 2015). AT&T shares the 10GB across devices without a per-unit limit. There’s no additional cost with AT&T to have your smartphone hotspot feature enabled. The data is used either by your smartphone or through your smartphone to your computer. Limit your data usage (as described below) to avoid paying additional fees.

Limit Your Data Usage

Smartphones are already optimized with data efficiency in mind. For example, your phone may be configured to only download large software updates when you’re connected to Wi-Fi Internet (and not using your phone’s data plan). Laptop and desktop computers typically don’t consider your connection method. So, you’ll want to be careful about not downloading the latest Windows updates or other software updates while using your mobile device. Don’t download movies, music, or large photos. Keep your usage limited to tasks like email and browsing the web.

Choosing Cable or DSL Internet

Due to outages and intermittent slow speed issues, some customers have switched from Mediacom Cable Modem Internet service to DSL service from CenturyLink (the local landline phone service provider). This is generally a more reliable connection, and provides what’s perceived to be better customer service. Because landline phone service is used for alarm systems, medical equipment, and 911 calls, it’s considered to be a higher tier of urgency. Services provided by cable television companies are considered to be less urgent (watching MTV isn’t as important as a 911 call). While CenturyLink advertises Internet speeds up to 1000 Mbps (for some markets), their typical available service speeds for most cities and neighborhoods are about 10 Mbps or slower.


UI Partners Offers Web and Tech Consulting for Iowa Small Businesses


UI Partners is a program through the University of Iowa that offers website and technology consulting to Iowa businesses. This page offers some general information about the program. To learn more, visit the UI Partners website or contact UI Partners to get started.



UI Partners was created by the University of Iowa specifically to help small Iowa companies innovate and grow. UI Partners works directly with businesses to solve their information technology (IT) challenges, using practical insights and ideas drawn from University faculty, staff, and students.

UI Partners consults with small businesses throughout Iowa on their IT needs, such as creating websites, managing databases, e-commerce or general tech support, as well as general business planning. This translates into projects that student interns or apprentices could work on, allowing UI students to build their resumes while also connecting with innovative Iowa businesses.

UI Partners is working to create a statewide network of integrated engagement centers to assist small businesses.

To support Iowa’s entrepreneurs, targeted technology training is available through the University of Iowa’s Dev/Iowa programs.

IT Assessment

UI Partners provides FREE Technology Needs Assessments for small businesses. Their staff and students work together to find business and technical solutions that help small businesses remain competitive and work more efficiently.

Business Strategy

UI Partners can provide leading edge informatics expertise and business training to organizations, startups, and established businesses. The group uses advanced entrepreneurship and business training to help find innovative solutions for your business.

Technology & Business Survey

The UI Partners Business Survey helps gather the essential information about a business to provide the best services possible.

Student Experience

UI Partners has a student employment program to assist college students in obtaining real world technology experience. Students get to work with multiple businesses to assist with IT and business strategy projects. Learn more or Apply Now.

Technical Training

UI Partners offers resources and training to help new and established business thrive with the technology solution that’s developed for their needs.

Innovate & Grow

UI Partners was created by The University of Iowa specifically to help small Iowa companies innovate and grow. They work directly with businesses to solve their information technology (IT) challenges, using practical insights and ideas drawn from University faculty, staff, and students. They are working to create a statewide network of integrated engagement centers to assist small businesses.

Workshops and Events

To support Iowa’s entrepreneurs, targeted technology training is available through the University of Iowa’s Dev/Iowa programs. Training opportunities include guest speakers, weekend workshops, one week programs and the intensive Dev/Iowa Bootcamp. Below is a video from the Dev/Iowa Bootcamp 2014.

[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=amD2rraQwLg]

Engagement Centers

UI Partners currently has three Engagement Centers located in Iowa City, Council Bluffs, and Sioux City. They plan to open more UI Partners locations across the state of Iowa.

Direction & Leadership

UI Partners is a division of the Office of the Vice President for Research and Economic Development.

Click here to visit the UI Partners website.

7-Port USB 3.0 Hub with 12V/3A Power Adapter


The AmazonBasics 7 Port USB 3.0 Hub with 12V/3A power adapter is a good choice because it meets the latest USB standards and offers the port power needed for hard drives and other devices that need powered ports. There are two ‘fast charge’ ports that offer the higher amps needed for fast charging devices. [Buy Now]

From the Manufacturer

This Hi-Speed USB 3.0 7-Port Hub with 5V/2.5A power adapter provides four downstream USB ports for Plug-and-Play connectivity to your USB 1.1, 2.0, and 3.0 devices. A perfect lightweight tool, this compact hub tucks easily into the pocket of your laptop bag or can be stored neatly on your desk. It offers an ideal way to connect on the road, and virtually anywhere you need fast, handy access to your USB devices. [View on Amazon]

USB 2.0 or 3.0?

AmazonBasics USB hubs and cables have different version numbers (2.0 and 3.0) that indicates their transfer speed. The higher the version number, the faster they can work. However, to get the full power, the host and the device must have the same version. If not, the lowest USB version in the chain will control the speed. For example, if your computer has a 2.0 USB port, your cable is 3.0, and your phone is 3.0, you will achieve 2.0 speed. If all three (computer, cable, and phone) all have 3.0 then you will have 3.0 speed. The AmazonBasics USB 3.0 4-Port Hub is backwards compatible with USB 2.0 and 1.1. [View on Amazon]

System Requirements

Desktop or notebook computer with USB port, and one of the following operating systems (no driver needed): Windows 2000/Win XP/Vista/Windows 7 & Mac 10.1 up. Connect digital cameras, iPods and iPhones, card readers, USB speakers, and more. [View on Amazon]

Amazon Frustration-Free Packaging

This AmazonBasics product features Amazon Frustration-Free Packaging that is recyclable. It comes without excess packaging materials such as hard plastic clamshell casings, plastic bindings, or wire ties. The packaging is designed to be opened without the use of a box cutter or knife, and it will protect your product just as well as traditional packaging. Products with Amazon Frustration-Free Packaging can frequently be shipped in their own boxes, without an additional shipping box, saving on resources and reducing waste. [View on Amazon]

What’s in the Box & Basic Features

  • Package includes: 1 USB 3.0 7 Port Hub / 1 12V 3A Power Adapter / 1 USB 3.0 Cable (3 feet) / 1 Owner’s Manual
  • Compatible with USB 3.0 and backwards compatible with USB 2.0
  • Support Low speed (1.5 Mbps)/ Full speed (12 Mbps)/High speed (480 Mbps)/ Super speed (5 Gbps)
  • Support auto switching between self-power and buspower mode
  • Note: This product is not intended to charge iPads/other tablets

Product Owners Manual & User Guide

Product Image Gallery


Ransomware Malware Virus Prevention, Protection, and Recovery

About Ransomware

Ransomware malware viruses infect a computer and make the user’s files inaccessible by encrypting them. In some cases the computer is left only partially usable. The user is given some instructions on how to get their files back. Usually this involves communicating directly with someone who will ask you for money before they will let you have access to your files again. They may also promise to fix the computer so that it will function again.

It is estimated that there are presently over 250,000 kinds of ransomware viruses. In 2013, just one of these viruses alone resulted in the extortion of an accumulated $3 million from all its victims before it was taken down by authorities. (source)

Ransomware Prevention

Some antivirus software providers, such as Kaspersky, promise that their software can protect against ransomware. This statement is on the Kaspersky website:

“To protect your computer from ransom malware, download and install Kaspersky Internet Security 2015. The application provides high-level protection against ransom malware.” (source)

Avoid Pop-Up Messages. Another important prevention measure is to be very careful with any unusual pop-up messages. Avoid clicking until you can be certain that the message is legitimate, or simply shut down the computer and restart.

Take Email Precautions. One way of getting ransomware is clicking on links in spam emails. Services like Gmail from Google examine all emails flowing through their system and monitor for malicious activity. So, for example, let’s say there is a fake message claiming to be from FedEx about a package that couldn’t be delivered. Google would likely identify that email as not having authentically been sent from Federal Express. So, it would end up in your spam folder with a notice, “We couldn’t verify that this message was really from the claimed sender” or “We’ve identified other messages like this one that are malicious.”

Use AntiVirus Software. Most antivirus software should prevent virus-like activity even from viruses that were previously unknown. Comprehensive Antivirus software can warn you of known malicious websites. In this way, they make browsing the web safer.

Use an Apple Computer. There are currently over 17 million known Windows computer viruses. The current number of Apple viruses are currently very limited. Apple computers are susceptible to security problems found in Adobe Flash and Java, so it’s important to stay updated. There have been a few fake Apple programs people have been deceived into installing, such as Mac Defender. A report of Apple viruses over the past 10 years is only a few pages long. (source) So, while Apple computers are not completely immune to viruses, they may be a better choice for security minded people.

Ransomware Protection

As described above, there are some preventative measures you can take. Ransomware protection are measures you can take to protect and limit the potential damage of a Ransomware attack.

Backups. Some backup programs run daily to maintain a backup of all your files. This is helpful, except in cases where your files have become corrupted or maliciously encrypted. In some cases, a good backup can be overwritten by a bad one. Also, a connected backup drive is accessible to viruses that might try to erase or encrypt files. In these cases, it may be best to maintain a separate manual backup of your files on a drive that remains disconnected from your computer in a safe place.

Cloud Synchronization. If you use a service like Dropbox to maintain a synchronized cloud copy of your files, make sure you have the ability to access previous versions of your files in the event they get damaged.

Ransomware Recovery

The most recent update about ransomware is an article from Sophos on 30 January 2015. (source) The article states:

Crypto-Ransomware is a family of malware that takes files on a PC or network storage, encrypts them, and then extorts money to unlock the files. … These encryptor malwares will encrypt pictures, documents, and videos, and then leave a ransom note in each directory after encrypting at least one file in that directory. They also typically attempt to do this to mapped network drives [or attached backup drives] as well. … Ransomware-encrypted files for most variants cannot be recovered at all. The encryption keys are not stored on the system. There is one variant which can be recovered, which is discussed below. … W32/VirRnsm-A infects files and changes them to .exe files, including the virus code. It still allows the file to open initially so it has a chance to spread. After a while it locks out the files. The good news is that these files, unlike most ransomware, can be recovered and cleaned by Sophos. A full system scan will fix and recover your files.” (source)

With so many variations of ransomware, it’s unlikely that encrypted files could be recovered unless they happen to be the result of the W32/VirRnsm-A variant.

Yet, some tools from Kaspersky (listed below) suggest that decryption may be possible if you have an original file that’s not encrypted and can compare this to an encrypted file.

Further Reading

Below are ransomware information pages from various sources.

Software Tools

Here are some software tools that might help with removal and/or recovery of files.

  • Kaspersky WindowsUnlocker – The Kaspersky WindowsUnlocker utility is designed to disinfect registries of all operating systems installed on the computer (including operating systems installed on different partitions or in different folders on one partition) and disinfect user registry trees. Kaspersky WindowsUnlocker does not perform any actions with files (in order to disinfect files you can use Kaspersky Rescue Disk).
  • RakhniDecryptor – utility for removing Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Rakhni
  • RannohDecryptor –  If the system is infected by a malicious program of the family Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Rannoh, Trojan-Ransom.Win32.AutoIt, Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Fury, or Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Cryakl, all files on the computer will be encrypted. To decrypt files affected by Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Rannoh, Trojan-Ransom.Win32.AutoIt, Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Fury, Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Crybola or Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Cryakl, use the RannohDecryptor utility.
  • RectorDecryptor – Kaspersky Lab specialists have developed a special utility for decrypting the data encrypted by Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Rector. Cybercriminals use Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Rector for disrupting normal performance of computers and for unauthorized modification of data making it unusable. Once the data has been “taken hostage” (blocked), its owner (user) receives a ransom demand. The victim is supposed to deliver the ransom in exchange for pirate’s promise to send a utility that would restore the data or repair the PC.
  • XoristDecryptor – There is a utility to confront malware of the family Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Xorist, Trojan-Ransom.MSIL.Vandev – XoristDecryptor. Malware of the family Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Xorist, Trojan-Ransom.MSIL.Vandev is designed for unauthorized modification of data on a victim computer. It makes computers uncontrollable or blocks its normal performance. After taking the data as a “hostage” (blocking it), a ransom is demanded from the user. The victim is supposed to deliver the ransom to the pirate, who is promising to send in return a program which would release the data or restore normal performance of the computer.

Instructional Videos

These videos refer to variants of ransomware. They may not be specific to your own experience, but the general information presented should be helpful. These videos provide an insight into the variety of ransomware and what the recovery solutions might be.

[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_dKBXeoLIFo] [youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w_7wUXzhRD8] [youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJagR2txHJU] [youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LKy9X–ffw8] [youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zcj9RKO3e38]

Windows Update: Avoiding Conflicts, Failures, and Errors

Problem Summary

For many years, Microsoft has issued updates for their software in numerous independent update patches. Even in the Apple Mac environment, software like Microsoft Office 2011 requires many updates after a clean installation.

The most problematic issues arise with Windows updates.

If you have a computer that’s several years old, and you need to perform a system restore (back to factory settings), it will be necessary to install the many hundreds of updates that have been issued since the time the computer was manufactured.

If you follow the prompts to install each batch of updates, which can often be over 100 at a time, some of the updates will conflict with one another. Some updates will be irrelevant. This process is hugely time consuming, and could render the computer useless with repeated bluescreen errors and system failures.

At some point along the way, the system update window may indicate that the computer is up to date. This may be incorrect information. Keep persisting. Restart the computer, and then from the updates window, click the Check for Updates link. It’s common to have many updates, and then have a large Service Pack to install, which has hundreds of required updates.

Even with a brand new very expensive Windows 8.1 computer, you may find that the computer stops working after installing the suggested Windows updates.


The screenshot below is a good example of the problems described above. Click the image for a larger view.


Notice that there are multiple updates for Internet Explorer 8 as well as an update/upgrade to Internet Explorer 11. There are also updates for multiple versions of Microsoft .NET Framework. Most software vendors are able to provide an updated version of their software that includes any updates since the previous major release. With Windows, a major update like a service pack should be able to include all the updates since the previous service pack.

If the Internet Explorer 11 update is installed, then this makes the Internet Explorer 8 updates unnecessary as shown in the notice below.


Problem Solution

The best way to avoid conflicts, failures, and errors with Windows Update is to scroll down to the bottom of the list of available updates and select only 5 to 10 updates at a time. Notice that the checkbox at the top of the list will select and deselect all updates. You can use this first to deselect all updates, and then scroll down and select 5 or 10 updates to install. After each batch, you will likely be prompted to restart the computer. This process can take many hours.

Cloud Synchronization May Be Slowing Down Your Computer

If you’re using services like Box.com, DropBox.com, Google Drive, or Microsoft OneDrive, you likely have the synchronization software installed and enabled.

Like most people, you probably have hundreds or thousands of files stored.

If you setup a new computer, depending on the speed of your Internet connection, you’ll need to wait hours (or maybe days) for all your files to synchronize again.

Even after that waiting period, you’ll likely find that the synchronization software running in the background tends to slow down your computer at startup, and while you’re using it.

AntiVirus software will want to scan every file that’s being synchronized, making the process even slower.

If you’ve been having trouble with your computer running slow, disable or close the synchronization software and see if that makes a difference.

Something else you can consider is to have one cloud service for your current files (keep that synchronized) and another service used as an archival backup of old files that are two or more years old (not synchronized).

Keep those thousands of files backed up in the cloud and also on a local removable hard drive. By doing this, you’ll free up disk space and speed up your computer.

You can always go to the website to get to your older archived files, but at least they aren’t taking up room on your local hard drive.

Many portable computers these days use solid state drives with less storage capacity. So, it’s important to only be carrying around the current files that are most important.